A yeast autophagy-related gene product (Atg8) has three mammalian homologues: LC3, GABAA receptor associated protein (GABARAP), and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer (GATE-16). Among them, LC3 is most actively studied and frequently used as a mammalian autophagy marker. Shortly after translation (proLC3), LC3 antibodies are processed at the C-terminus by Atg4B or Atg4A into LC3-I. Upon induction of autophagy, LC3-I is conjugated to the substrate phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) via E1 (Atg7) and E2 (Atg3). The PE-LC3-I conjugate is referred to as LC3-II. Despite having a higher molecular weight than LC3-I, LC3-II is more hydrophobic and shows a higher mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). GABARAP and GATE-16 are also demonstrated to undergo the same process of conjugation with PE.
|LC3 Antibody||LC3 Isoform||Application|
LC3 has been found to have multiple isoforms. To date, we know of LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C. MBL International offers high quality LC3 antibodies specific for detecting exactly the isoform of interest. Our LC3 antibodies can be used for various applications including: western blots, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and more.
Top anti-LC3 Antibodies:
|Code No.||Product Name||Species Reactivity||Applications|
|M152-3||Anti-LC3 (Human) Monoclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||FCM, ICC, IP, WB|
|M186-3||Anti-LC3 (Human) Monoclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||WB|
|M186-7||Anti-LC3 Monoclonal Antibody-HRP-DirecT||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||WB|
|PD014||Anti-LC3 (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||WB|
|PM036||Anti-LC3 (Human) Polyclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||FCM, ICC, IHC, IP, WB|
Akira et al. investigated the role of autophagy in the inflammatory response. Atg16L1-deficient cells were found to show lower levels of autophagy, which negatively impacts the production of IL-1beta. IL-1 beta has been implicated in many autoimmune disorders. In order to determine the levels of autophagy, the researchers used PM036 to detect LC3 as LC3 can be used as a marker for autophagy.
In our white paper below, Dr. Noboru Mizushima provides an in-depth review of autophagy, its current and future perspectives. Download this informative white paper today.
Download our autophagy pathway poster to visualize the interactions between various proteins involved in autophagy.