A yeast autophagy-related gene product (Atg8) has three mammalian homologues: LC3, GABAA receptorassociated protein (GABARAP), and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer (GATE-16).
Among them, LC3 is most actively studied and frequently used as a mammalian autophagy marker. Shortly after translation (proLC3), LC3 is processed at the C-terminus by Atg4B or Atg4A into LC3-I. Upon induction of autophagy, LC3-I is conjugated to the substrate phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) via E1 (Atg7) and E2 (Atg3). The PE-LC3-I conjugate is referred to as LC3-II. Despite having a higher molecular weight than LC3-I, LC3-II is more hydrophobic and shows a higher mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). GABARAP and GATE-16 are also demonstrated to undergo the same process of conjugation with PE.
The role of autophagy in the inflammatory response was investigated. Atg16L1-deficient cells were found to show lower levels of autophagy, which negatively impacts the production of IL-1beta. IL-1 beta has been implicated in many autoimmune disorders.
In order to determine the levels of autophagy, the researchers used PM036 to detect LC3 as LC3 can be used as a marker for autophagy.
|Code No.||Product Name||Species Reactivity||Applications|
|M152-3||Anti-LC3 (Human) Monoclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||FCM, ICC, IP, WB|
|M186-3||Anti-LC3 (Human) Monoclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||WB|
|M186-7||Anti-LC3 Monoclonal Antibody-HRP-DirecT||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||WB|
|PD014||Anti-LC3 (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||WB|
|PM036||Anti-LC3 (Human) Polyclonal Antibody||Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster||FCM, ICC, IHC, IP, WB|
Keima-Red for mitophagy detection in living cells
Code. No. PM038 (Polyclonal)