A yeast autophagy-related gene product (Atg8) has three mammalian homologues: LC3, GABAA receptorassociated protein (GABARAP), and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer (GATE-16).

Among them, LC3 is most actively studied and frequently used as a mammalian autophagy marker. Shortly after translation (proLC3), LC3 is processed at the C-terminus by Atg4B or Atg4A into LC3-I. Upon induction of autophagy, LC3-I is conjugated to the substrate phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) via E1 (Atg7) and E2 (Atg3). The PE-LC3-I conjugate is referred to as LC3-II. Despite having a higher molecular weight than LC3-I, LC3-II is more hydrophobic and shows a higher mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). GABARAP and GATE-16 are also demonstrated to undergo the same process of conjugation with PE.

Relevant Publication

 Saitoh T et al. Loss of the autophagy protein Atg16L1 enhances endotoxin-induced IL-1beta production. Nature 456, 264-8 (2008)

The role of autophagy in the inflammatory response was investigated. Atg16L1-deficient cells were found to show lower levels of autophagy, which negatively impacts the production of IL-1beta. IL-1 beta has been implicated in many autoimmune disorders.
In order to determine the levels of autophagy, the researchers used PM036 to detect LC3 as LC3 can be used as a marker for autophagy.

Anti-LC3 Antibodies:

Code No.Product NameSpecies ReactivityApplications
M152-3Anti-LC3 (Human) Monoclonal AntibodyHuman, Mouse, Rat, HamsterFCM, ICC, IP, WB
M186-3Anti-LC3 (Human) Monoclonal AntibodyHuman, Mouse, Rat, HamsterWB
M186-7Anti-LC3 Monoclonal Antibody-HRP-DirecTHuman, Mouse, Rat, HamsterWB
PD014Anti-LC3 (Rat) Polyclonal AntibodyHuman, Mouse, Rat, HamsterWB
PM036Anti-LC3 (Human) Polyclonal AntibodyHuman, Mouse, Rat, HamsterFCM, ICC, IHC, IP, WB

Related Products

Keima-Red for mitophagy detection in living cells

Anti-GABARAP Antibodies:

Code. No. PM037 (Polyclonal) and M135-3 (Monoclonal)

Anti-GATE-16 Antibody:

Code. No. PM038 (Polyclonal)

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