LC3-ATG8 Research Reagents
A yeast autophagy-related gene product (Atg8) has three mammalian homologues: LC3, GABAA receptor associated protein (GABARAP), and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer (GATE-16). Among them, LC3 is most actively studied and frequently used as a mammalian autophagy marker. Shortly after translation (proLC3), LC3 is processed at the C-terminus by Atg4B or Atg4A into LC3-I. Upon induction of autophagy, LC3-I is conjugated to the substrate phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) via E1 (Atg7) and E2 (Atg3). The PE-LC3-I conjugate is referred to as LC3-II. Despite having a higher molecular weight than LC3-I, LC3-II is more hydrophobic and shows a higher mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). GABARAP and GATE-16 are also demonstrated to undergo the same process of conjugation with PE.
MBL International provides the most cited LC3 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that are capable of detecting the various forms of LC3: LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C.