Inflammation

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TXNIP ELISA Kit 

Inflammation

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), the endogenous inhibitor of thioredoxin also known as vitamin D3 up-regulated protein-1 or thioredoxin-binding protein-2, inhibits thioredoxin antioxidative function by binding to its active-site thiols.

It was also demonstrated that TXNIP plays a crucial role for caspase-1 activation caused by high glucose treatment in murine cells by direct interaction with the NLRP3-inflammasome. TXNIP-dependent inflammasome activation appears to be specific for NLRP3, as TXNIP deficiency did not affect the activity of other inflammasomes, e.g., NLRC4 and AIM2. TXNIP levels are elevated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its expression is induced by glucose-6-phosphate through an intracellular transcriptional complex of MondoA and Max-like protein X. TXNIP is induced by various types of cellular stress, including oxidative stress, UV irradiation, heat shock and apoptotic signaling, and is often suppressed in various human tumors. Overexpression of TXNIP inhibits proliferation via cell-cycle arrest and promotes apoptosis.

Related Product

Product Product Code Number
CircuLex Human TXNIP ELISA Kit  CY-8090

 

NGAL Lipocalin-2 ELISA Kit 

Human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), also called human lipocalin-2, was originally identified as an associated protein to 92-kDa human neutrophil type IV collagenase, also called gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The rat ortholog, neu-related lipocalin (NRL) was identified as a protein highly overexpressed in mammary cancers. The murine ortholog, called 24p3, 24 kDa superinducible protein (Sip24), oruterocalin, was identified as a protein induced in response to various proliferative signals and is highly expressed in uterine luminal fluids and epithelial cells. Recently, 24p3 has also been implicated in processes as diverse as apoptosis and kidney cell differentiation.

It has recently been also demonstrated that the binding of NGAL to bacterial siderophores is pivotal in the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Upon encountering invading bacteria the Toll-like receptors on immune cells stimulate the transcription, translation, and secretion of NGAL. Secreted NGAL then limits bacterial growth by sequestrating the iron-laden siderophore.

NGAL is released from the secondary granules of activated neutrophils and plasma levels rise in inflammatory or infective conditions, especially in bacterial infections. Thus the level of NGAL in plasma or serum has been proposed as a marker of infection. It has been suggested that urinary NGAL levels may serve as an early marker for ischemic renal injury in children after cardiopulmonary bypass. In addition, it has been reported that both clinical and experimental evidence demonstrating that circulating NGAL is a marker for obesity and its associated pathologies.

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Product Product Code Number
CircuLex Rat NGAL/Lipocalin-2 ELISA Kit CY-8053

 

AIF1 ELISA Kit 

Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF1), also designated Iba1, is a 17 kDa cytoplasmic, IFN-γ-induced, Ca2+-binding EFhand protein, originally identified in rat cardiac allografts undergoing chronic rejection. AIF1 is constitutively expressed in various human immune-related tissues and is up-regulated in monocytes/macrophages under various pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation. Therefore AIF1 may play a role in macrophage activation and function. AIF1 is a marker of human microglia and is expressed by macrophages in injured skeletal muscle and regulates proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. AIF1 expression was found to be decreased in patients receiving immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies, which suggests a prominent role of this protein in the inflammatory process.

High-Sensitivity CRP ELISA Kit

C-Reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric acute phase reactant that is synthesized by the liver. Its production is controlled primarily by interleukin-6. The serum CRP concentration may increase by up to 1000-fold with infection, ischemia, trauma, surgery, and other acute inflammatory events. Thus CRP can be used as an extremely sensitive systemic marker of inflammation.

 A growing number of studies suggest that CRP is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Plasma CRP concentrations in the highest quartile are associated, depending on the subject group, with 1.5- to 7-fold increases in relative risk of symptomatic atherosclerosis. The baseline plasma concentration of C-reactive protein predicts the risk of future myocardial infarction and stroke and is associated with a poor prognosis in unstable angina. Plasma CRP levels are also strongly associated with obesity and obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Although a recent report indicated that the plasma CRP level decreased during weight reduction, the precise interaction of CRP with obesity has not been fully elucidated.

Related Product

Product  Product Code Number
High-Sensitivity CRP ELISA Kit CY-8071

Progranulin ELISA Kit 

Progranulin (PGRN) also called granulin/epithelin, proepithelin, prostate cancer cell-derived growth factor, acrogranin, or paragranulin, is a 593aa cysteine-rich protein that is typically secreted in a highly glycosylated 88kDa form. PGRN is a growth factor involved in the regulation of multiple processes including cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, wound healing, development and inflammation. PGRN is widely expressed in epithelia, bone marrow, immune cells, solid organs, and the nervous system both during development and in adulthood.

In 2006, mutations in PGRN were discovered to be a cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated TDP-43-positive inclusions. More than 70 mutations in PGRN, almost all of which result in null alleles, have been identified in FTLD patients. A few causative missense mutations also result in reduced levels of PGRN.

PGRN can be found in adipose tissue, epithelial tissue, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive organs, and so forth. Previous studies have demonstrated that increased gene expression of PGRN stimulates cancer cell division, invasion, and against anoikis, promoting tumor formation.

It has been shown that PGRN could restrain rheumatoid arthritis by binding directly to tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) and play an anti-inflammatory role in the processes. In addition, it was reported that circulating PGRN levels are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, increased plasma PGRN levels are associated with impaired glucose tolerance rather than impaired fasting glucose. Although type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by obesity, the respective role of elevation of circulating PGRN levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes remains to be elucidated. 

Related Products

Product Product Code Number
CircuLex Human Progranulin ELISA Kit    CY-8101
CircuLex Mouse Progranulin ELISA Kit    CY-8108

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