CircuLex Human Progranulin ELISA Kit

  • Target Progranulin
  • Species Reactivities Human
  • Code # CY-8101
  • Size 96 Assays
  • Price
    $595.00
Specifications

Alternative Names

granulin.epithelin, proepithelin, prostate cancer cell-derived growthfactor, acrogranin, or paragranulin

Background

Progranulin (PGRN) also called granulin/epithelin, proepithelin, prostate cancer cell-derived growth factor, acrogranin, or paragranulin, is a 593aa cysteine-rich protein that is typically secreted in a highly glycosylated 88kDa form (1, 2). PGRN is a growth factor involved in the regulation of multiple processes including cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, wound healing, development and inflammation. PGRN is widely expressed in epithelia, bone marrow, immune cells, solid organs, and the nervous system both during development and in adulthood (3-7). In 2006, mutations in PGRN were discovered to be a cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated TDP-43-positive inclusions (6, 8-10, 12, 13). More than 70 mutations in PGRN, almost all of which result in null alleles, have been identified in FTLD patients. A few causative missense mutations also result in reduced levels of PGRN (10). PGRN can be found in adipose tissue, epithelial tissue, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive organs, and so forth (11). Previous studies have demonstrated that increased gene expression of PGRN stimulates cancer cell division, invasion, and against anoikis, promoting tumor formation (2). It has been shown that PGRN could restrain rheumatoid arthritis by binding directly to tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) and play an anti-inflammatory role in the processes (14). In addition, it was reported that circulating PGRN levels are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes (15). Moreover, increased plasma PGRN levels are associated with impaired glucose tolerance rather than impaired fasting glucose (16). Although type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by obesity, the respective role of elevation of circulating PGRN levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes remains to be elucidated.
  • Components:
    • Microplate
    • 10X Wash Buffer
    • Dilution Buffer
    • Human Progranulin Standard
    • HRP conjugated Detection Antibody
    • Substrate Reagent
    • Stop Solution
  • Description:
    This Kit is used for the quantitative measurement of human progranulin in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other biological media.serum, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other biological media.
  • Gene ID (Human):
  • Product Type:
    Kit
  • Sensitivity:
    better than 20.4 pg/mL of sample.
  • Short Description:
    This Kit is used for the quantitative measurement of human progranulin.
  • Size:
    96 Assays
  • Species Reactivity:
    Human
  • Storage Temperature:
    4°C
  • Target:
    Progranulin
References
  1. Daniels R, Daniels E, He Z, and Bateman A. Progranulin (acrogranin/PC cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) is expressed in the placenta, epidermis, microvasculature, and brain during murine development. Developmental Dynamics, vol. 227, no. 4, pp. 593–599, 2003.
  2. He Z and Bateman A. Progranulin (granulin-epithelin precursor, PC-cell-derived growth factor, acrogranin) mediates tissue repair and tumorigenesis. Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 600–612, 2003.
  3. Bhandari V., Palfree R. G., Bateman A. (1992) Isolation and sequence of the granulin precursor cDNA from human bone marrow reveals tandem cysteine-rich granulin domains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 1715–1719
  4. Daniel R., He Z., Carmichael K. P., Halper J., Bateman A. (2000) Cellular localization of gene expression for progranulin. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 48, 999–1009
  5. Daniel R., Daniels E., He Z., Bateman A. (2003) Progranulin (acrogranin/PC cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) is expressed in the placenta, epidermis, microvasculature, and brain during murine development. Dev. Dyn. 227, 593–599
  6. Mackenzie I. R., Baker M., Pickering-Brown S., Hsiung G. Y., Lindholm C., Dwosh E., Gass J., Cannon A., Rademakers R., Hutton M., Feldman H. H. (2006) The neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration caused by mutations in the progranulin gene. Brain 129, 3081–3090
  7. Matsubara T., Mita A., Minami K., Hosooka T., Kitazawa S., Takahashi K., Tamori Y., Yokoi N., Watanabe M., Matsuo E., Nishimura O., Seino S. (2012) PGRN is a key adipokine mediating high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity through IL-6 in adipose tissue. Cell Metab. 15, 38–50
  8. Baker M., Mackenzie I. R., Pickering-Brown S. M., Gass J., Rademakers R., Lindholm C., Snowden J., Adamson J., Sadovnick A. D., Rollinson S., Cannon A., Dwosh E., Neary D., Melquist S., Richardson A., Dickson D., Berger Z., Eriksen J., Robinson T., Zehr C., Dickey C. A., Crook R., McGowan E., Mann D., Boeve B., Feldman H., Hutton M. (2006) Mutations in progranulin cause tau-negative frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17. Nature 442, 916–919
  9. Cruts M., Gijselinck I., van der Zee J., Engelborghs S., Wils H., Pirici D., Rademakers R., Vandenberghe R., Dermaut B., Martin J. J., van Duijn C., Peeters K., Sciot R., Santens P., De Pooter T., Mattheijssens M., Van den Broeck M., Cuijt I., Vennekens K., De Deyn P. P., Kumar-Singh S., Van Broeckhoven C. (2006) Null mutations in progranulin cause ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17q21. Nature 442, 920–924
  10. Shankaran S. S., Capell A., Hruscha A. T., Fellerer K., Neumann M., Schmid B., Haass C. (2008) Missense mutations in the progranulin gene linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions reduce progranulin production and secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 1744–1753
  11. Tolkatchev D, Malik S, Vinogradova A. et al. Structure dissection of human progranulin identifies well-folded granulin/ epithelin modules with unique functional activities. Protein Science, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 711–724, 2008.
  12. Boss'u P, Salani F, Alberici A et al. Loss of function mutations in the progranulin gene are related to pro-inflammatory cytokine dysregulation in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients. Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 8, article 65, 2011.
  13. Finch N, Baker M, Crook R. et al. Plasma progranulin levels predict progranulin mutation status in frontotemporal dementia patients and asymptomatic family members. Brain, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 583–591, 2009.
  14. Tang W, Lu Y, Tian QY. et al. The growth factor progranulin binds to tnf receptors and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis in mice. Science, vol. 332, no. 6028, pp. 478–484, 2011.
  15. Youn BS, Bang SI, Klöting N. et al. Serum progranulin concentrations may be associated with macrophage infiltration into omental adipose tissue. Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 627-636, 2009.
  16. Tönjes A, Fasshauer M, Kratzsch J, Stumvoll M, and M. Bluher M. Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes. PLoS One, vol. 5, no.11, Article ID e13911, 2010