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|Alternative Names:||Calcium/Calmodulin dependent protein kinase II|
|Background:||Introduction Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) is a ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that transduces elevated Ca2+ signals in cells to a number of target proteins ranging from ion channels to transcriptional activators. CaM kinase II has a unique holoenzyme structure and autoregulatory properties that allow it to give a prolonged response to transient Ca2+ signals and to sense cellular Ca2+ oscillations (1). In neurons CaM kinase II is highly expressed and localized with certain subcellular structures. Upon activation it can translocate to excitatory synapses where it regulates a number of proteins involved in synaptic transmission and its downstream signaling pathways. Changes in intracellular calcium can display variable responses ranging from highly localized, transient elevations within subcellular structures (e.g. a dendritic spine of a neuron) to Ca2+ waves that spread throughout the cell including the nucleus. The most ubiquitous calcium-sensing protein is Calmodulin (CaM), which contains four Ã¢â‚¬Å“EFÃ¢â‚¬Â hand motifs with high specificity for binding Ca2+. The Ca2+/CaM complex interacts with and modulates the functionality of a large number of proteins (2) including several Ser/Thr protein kinases. The CaM kinase II family is encoded by four genes (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) that also exhibit alternative splicing. The gamma and delta isoforms are expressed in most tissues, whereas the alpha and beta isoforms are most prominent in neural tissues and comprise up to 2 % of the total protein in the hippocampus of rodents and up to 1% of the total protein in the forebrain itself (3). The various CaM kinase II subunits are comprised of an N-terminal catalytic region, a central regulatory domain containing an autoinhibitory domain (AID) and Ca2+/CaM binding motif, a variable sequence, and the C-terminal subunit association domain (4). The holoenzyme is an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve 50Ã¢â‚¬â€œ60-kDa subunits arranged as two stacked hexameric rings (5, 6). The C-terminal association domains form the central core of each ring with the N-terminal catalytic domains projecting outward. In the absence of bound Ca2+/CaM, the CaM kinase II is maintained in an inactive conformation because of an interaction of the AID with the catalytic domain of its own subunit. The Ca2+/CaM complex binds to a sequence that partially overlaps the AID, presumably causing a conformational change and thereby disrupting interaction of the AID with the catalytic domain and producing kinase activation. Interestingly, the sensitivity of CaM kinase II to activation by Ca2+/CaM depends on the subunit composition of the holoenzyme (7). Measurement of CaM kinase II activity The protocol generally regarded as most sensitive for the quantitative measurement of CaM kinase II activity involves incubation of the CaM kinase II sample with substrate, either a natural or synthetic polypeptide (such as a Syntide-2), in the presence of Mg2+and 32P-labeled ATP. The reaction is terminated by "spotting" a sample onto a phosphocellulose P81 filter paper disc, followed by washing extensively to remove unincorporated radiolabel and the incorporated radioactivity on P81 filter is counted. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive, generates hazardous radioactive waste, and depends on a radioisotope of short half-life. It is particularly unsuitable when kinase assays are only performed on an infrequent basis. The CycLexÃ‚Â® CaM kinase II Assay Kit uses a peroxidase coupled anti-sequence-specific phosphoserine monoclonal antibody as a reporter molecule in a 96-well ELISA format. This assay provides a non-isotopic, sensitive and specific method to detect CaM kinase II activity. The CycLexÃ‚Â® CaM kinase II Assay Kit is designed to accurately determine the presence and relative amount of CaM kinase II activity in purification column fractions, and for the non-isotopic kinetic analysis of CaM kinase II activity. Careful attention to extraction methods and the assay protocol will provide the investigator with a reliable tool for the evaluation of CaM kinase II.|
|Gene ID Human:||816|
|Gene ID Mouse:||12323|
|Regulatory Statement:||For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.|
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